Virtual Reality International Conferences 2000
Laval 18-21 Mai 2000
THE POLYAGOGIC CYBERSPACES
AND THE DESIGN OF THE MULTIMEDIA CONCEPT
FOR THE NETWORKED
CULTURAL AND SCIENTIFIC INHERITANCE, EDUCATION,
MULTIMEDIA AND AUDIOVISUAL ARTISTIC CREATION ACCESS
Patrick Saint-Jean, MC
Arts et Création Industrielle, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan
61, Avenue du Président Wilson, 94235 - Cachan
(33) 1 47 40 24 39
(33) 1 47 40 24 38
Keywords: NTIC, network, inheritance, education, cognition, knowledge database, data-warehouse, data-mining, data-thinking, data-minding, relational texturology, design of the multimedia concept, immersive, interactivity.
Based on a model of the relational texture of the information, the Design of concept defined by its multimedia features is developed in the PolyAgogic CyberSpaces, an interactive and immersive amphitheatre, with four screens for showing the information globality by the World Wide Web, a control interface for acquiring personalised data, and for structuring a textured knowledge data-base, a scientific visualisation for representing and putting in concrete form the virtual and abstract dimension of the data and for giving interactivity and automatic propositions of scenario and scores multimedia, and a space of virtual reality for expressing the composition and the stage of the tangles, of the inter-mingles, or of the intertwining of concepts as a course or a show of knowledge.
In the case of the Design of CyberSpaces (architecture, hardware, software, contents and uses), our purpose is the access to the cultural and scientific inheritance by the network (Internet, intra and extranet), the show of the knowledge and of the know-how, the education and the creation (numerical studio of conception, realisation and production) developing the autonomous work, the collective work and the co-operative work in the "PolyAgogic CyberSpace", an immersive and interactive amphitheatre for the virtual Design of the multimedia concept.
To satisfy these objectives, the project is regrouped in terms of "Univers, Cités Virtuelles Interactives", (Universe, Cities, Virtual and Interactive), as a way, as a method and as an approach of the citizen for teaching, for learning, for training and for practising the knowledge, through the conception, through the creation and through the production of digital shows or of virtual objects (CD-ROM, DVD, Web-site), managed by a dynamic scenario and by a multimedia full score.
According to the global information society (1993) and the NTIC (new technologies for the information and communication), we define a strategy of interactive human knowledge assisted by computer, through the observation, acquisition, treatment, analysis, synthesis, accompanied by the artificial intelligence and by the self-organisation on Data Warehouses with Data Mining (Business & Decision, 1999) and that we call the Data Thinking and the Data-Minding, and through the dynamical presentations (with walk-through) of the pluri-disciplinary (Siggraph 94) and multi-cultural expression of the concept, with inclusion of its own knowledge and know-how to obtain its specific knowledge base.
1 Designing the historic way
The current project is the convergence of three orientations of search started as of the Seventies: the design and the realisation of interactive systems, structuring and organisation of information, and articulation enter the concrete one, the abstract and the virtual one.
PolyAgogic CyberSpace draws its PolyAgogic qualification from name UPIC (Unit Polyagogic Informatic of CEMAMu) expressing the assumption to be able to teach several disciplines in same time (drawing, architecture, mathematics, physics, philosophy, etc) or more building mental edges between different disciplines. This name given to the first information processing laboratory system operational for the musical and visual composition interactive, (Patrick Saint-Jean, 1977), was conceived and carried out with the CNET on behalf of CEMAMu (Center of Mathematical and Automatical Music Study) and of the compositor Iannis Xénakis.
In wider terms, "polyagogic" means that same data-processing tool, unimedia of processing, multi-media of expression and plurimedia of input-output, can allow the teaching and the practice of several disciplines, several cultures, in several languages.
Reinstating the writing and the sound one (word, the verb, song and music) in the Design, the drawing and the graph, the need for defining a multi-media aesthetics binding the global one closely - the universal one, the identical one, the perfect one of the modernism -, and the local - the singularity, the artefact, the difference of the postmodernism -, can characterise the trans-modernism of XXIe century, by the local differences constituting globality servicing the locality. Thus each design of multi-media concept is at the same time a singularity and a universal following the perception which it can generate on the network.
The "Conceptuarium" have be initiate from 1992 under the term SIPI (Sound-Image-Partition Interactive) with LIASA (Laboratory Data-processing in Art and Science of Art) of University of Paris I and LTNIS (Laboratory of New Technology of Image and of Sound) with ENSC,
then, under that of MTIPSI (Multi-media Text Image Partition Son Interactive), with CREACI (Centre of Research Study in Art and Industrial Creation of ENSC then the group Design Search Study in Art and Industrial Creation at the ENSC after the departure of Guy Rachel Grataloup), to answer with some need to establish some data base of computer art information's, and of pedagogic curriculum.
The project of PolyAgogic CyberSpace and the "Universe Cities Virtual Interactive" takes its entire dimension within the framework of a co-operation between the CREACI and its partners in an EDIS-Network program of a European network of cyberespaces. The action on this level consists in carrying out a standardisation of the containers to keep specificity's of the contents and to allow the diffusion in a European network of works and products, emanating from industrial creation and the creation of author accompanied by a conceptual reflection binding work, its author and the company of his time, with its history and its future.
3 Designing the approach and the process
PolyAgogic CyberSpace is an overall concept scene-time-action distributed and set out again at the same time, decentralising and federate, based on the relational one on a human scale created by the links of information in network of networks. It introduces the problems of the converging passage of the writing and the drawing towards the expression of the multimedia concept assisted by the information processing system in network. Passing from the globality of the information, published within the meaning of the book, manufactured within the meaning of the industrialist and created with the artistic direction, it is a tool or an instrumentation, a support of conceptual matters and materials, methods and interactive approaches to weave, reticulate and texture the information, connected between the personal computer (rather isolationist at home), the automatic sites (more collective) and the Cyberspace (rather co-operative, in room, general-purpose theatre and amphitheatre) to constitute personal knowledge and references bases.
It integrates the various associated concepts related to its evolution with 1994 (Saint-Jean Patrick 1994)
and 1996 versions (Saint-Jean Patrick, 1997),
where the public is opposite the animators and where the technological projection makes it possible to consider the use of simulators for better including/understanding and feeling the concept in its environment, and in simplified version presented to Imagina in 1999
and Laval into 2000, where the organiser is among the public vis-à-vis with the screens, immersed in the spectacle of knowledge, with a mouse, a joy-stick or a pencil on a graphics tablet for designer the space of knowledge, the scene remaining available for actors in bodysuit (dress of data) controlling experiments, guiding voyages and virtual visits or interactivating with virtual space.
According to its use, the PolyAgogic CyberSpace is structured into Musearium for filing, Conceptuarium for the Design of the Concept and into Cyberarium for the staging of virtual theatre or interactive simulation, and in Virtualisarium for the transformation of information necessary to the scientific visualisation which transforms a data base into an 3D environment and a virtual object favourable with the design.
Thus, provided with his tools, any speaker can begin a research, a voyage, with a whole team, his public co-operator. He adopts a step of scientist, philosopher, artist, and observes, discovers, takes notes, photographs, takes measures, translates, interprets, gives an opinion, engages in problems and is expressed on acquired and thought knowledge to carry out a course, a spectacle, an initiatory course, which he transforms by a language object-subject-project into interactive scenario or multi-media partition.
In its version with 4 screens, the Polyagogic CyberSpace is structured according to three interfaces: the Conceptatrium giving concrete dimension as a place, a scene, the Conceptuarium giving the abstract dimension of the time of reflection and the "Conceptier" giving virtual dimension by the forms and the colours of the design of the object and the environment of knowledge propitious to a plastic praxis.
The Conceptatrium is composed of 4 screens in interactivity with the speaker, being able to take the function of teacher, organiser, managing, head of orchestra and realizer, and the public which can be an actor, inter-actor (or spect-actor) or spectator. The showed different web pages could be hypermedia, animations, interactive 3D or 2D spaces, virtual reality (Heim Michael, 1993 ; Quéau Philippe, 1993 ; Rheingold Howard, 1993), webTV Channels, visio-conference, and the interfaces of control commands to carry out the co-operative work.
The Conceptuarium is the tool which connects information resulting from the global observation of the Internet, to structure of it a multi-media concept of the data-base of personalised knowledge, managing by contract the use of the multimedia elements according to the royalties and the copyright, the recuperation (download) and the appropriation (transformation) of the "copyleft" right information, with accounting according to pre-contracts signed in advance or in real time by the specific use of HTML tag.
Including the real time access to the World Wide Web sites and the access in differed time of the research on personal information using the single search engines or the multi-search engines as Coopernic™ software to establish the html lists of the specific sites according to the searched concept, and its proper works standardised to the web formats (gif, jpeg, html, etc.), the Conceptuarium is the linker of interactive information. The Conceptuarium is structured into 5 frames on line. The first one is used to show different lists of sites (portal), given information about contents and addresses. The second one is divided into 3 frames on columns: the TV information channels on the left, a search engine on the right and the interactive Conceptier on the middle. The third row is the interactive scenario or multimedia partition frame that the user can interactively modify and execute.
The Conceptier be the tool which after virtualisation, kind of compilation which transform a table of data into a unit of conceptual elements (the lines), carry out a whole of measurement of texture, the parameters (the columns), to obtain a vrml file (Andrea L. Ames, David R. Nadeau, John L. Moreland, 1997) of the base of knowledge of Conceptuarium representing a virtual space composed of object with forms, colours and properties proportional with the value of parameters and go allow its visualisation as object of design.
In a first stage minimalist, a conceptual counting frame or Conceptier was selected symbolically for recall the Chinese counting frame, where the aligned balls being used to count are replaced by small cylinders of colour and texture representing a parameter of a conceptual element. The interaction can be carried out on two levels. The first is the handling following of the compromises of the lines and the columns to gather parametric values. This method is being able to be carried out automatic by algorithm of self-organisation. The second plan of interactivity is done on the cylinder itself, which allows the visualisation of the conceptual element (page HTML, image, animation, speech, etc). Once organised, the reading of Conceptier (from top to bottom and from left to the right) gives the direction in which the concepts are expressed and by which continuation of conceptual elements it is declined, developed, and staged. The conversion of this reading into language object-subject-project gives a linear scenario (succession of pages) specialised by the interactivity of its contents. The distribution of the actions in the scenario on the different screens gives the multimedia partition.
4 Designing the mathematical model
Informational measurement on the sites of the Internet network can be modelled by the binary relations according to properties between elements of knowledge that the designer wanted to put at it and that the user considers from his own point of view, and according to the proximity (objective and subjective) between these elements. Since 1971 we developed (Saint-Jean Patrick, 1971) a model of relational texture, checked on the images of texture (Saint-Jean Patrick, Von Hagen V., Koper G., Ploem J.S., 1986) and which adapts to the informational network.
The model impressed its bases with the languages mathematics but can be translated into terms of the current language.
4.1 Designing a relational texture model
Thus using the definition of a topological space on the neighbourhood and of a binary relation (Bourbaki 64, Lipschutz 65): That is to say a topology T on a set X of multimedia elements definite starting from a V(x) family of subsets of "neighbourhood of x", the local expressions of the concept, satisfactory for each element x of X to the four following axioms :
Then V(x) is a system of neighbourhood of X, and (X,t) is a definite topological space on X. And is, in this same set X, a A(x) subset, the focused concept, having x as a multimedia element and a binary relation R in X defined on a property (kind of element, features of the Design or of a discipline or of an information field).
We show that the reflexivity of the relation gives, with the elements of set X, the property to check the first three axioms, and forwarded satisfied the fourth. The binary relations having properties of reflexivity and transitivity, are the relations of equivalence and of order, the property of symmetry and anti-symmetry differentiating them. But thus the network defined by a topology is mathematically connected, and hierarchical and generally does not correspond to the networks of information. The model of pretopological space (Saint-Jean Patrick, Emptoz H. 1987 ; Saint-Jean P. 89) is adapted more with the concept of relative proximity in that of neighbourhood, which transforms it into preneighbourhood. To obtain a pretopological space of topological space, it is necessary that the properties of the elements of the set X necessarily do not satisfy the axiom (4) of the neighbourhood. The properties of wide reflexivity and nontransitivity of a relation do not define a topological space on a set but a pretopological space. Nontransitivity is either intransitivity in a space with an only one dimension, or a transitivity partial in spaces of higher size. In fact the absence of the axiom (4) is insufficient to define the preneighbourhood and it is preferable to define an axiom of preneighbourhood (4-bis), compatible with the nontransitivity of the binary relation :
For any multimedia element x of X and V an expression of the concept of V(x), there is at least an element y of X, different of x, and pertaining to V' an other expression of V(x) such as V does not belong to V(y).
This axiom makes it possible on the one hand to build a pretopological space without passing by a topological space and on the other hand to differentiate this one from the other pretopological spaces built starting from different properties. If we perceive and describe a set of concepts by the relational aspect of its elements, it is restrictive and particular to use only relations of necessarily topological equivalence or order.
A faculty of perception and thoughts are to compare spaces, moments, concepts, to build subsets compared to their intrinsic properties, and compared to the other subsets having different intrinsic properties and which because of these differences generates configurations and dispositions inside the set related to arrangements and connections of the elements and groups of elements. The mathematical composition of binary relations gives for result is a transitive relation, if and only if all the made up relations are transitive relations, that is to say a nontransitive relation, if and only so at least only one of the made up relations is a nontransitive relation.
The composition of the binary relations enables us to account for the concepts isolated but also of tangles, inter-mingles, or intertwining of concepts and thus on the one hand to take into account groups related to the similarities by the transitive relations and of the frontier zones related to the differences by the relations not, and on the other hand to create interferences between properties of the two kinds, the result being a nontransitive relation defining on the whole observed of the concepts a space of pretopological texture, which is a pretopological space. The existence of interferences between properties defines for us the concept of " relational Texture". Textures resulting from only one relation known as are degenerated bus not credits of interferences, consequently very restrictive in the description of texture. Topological textures create disjoined interferences characterising a homogeneity, for example a disciplinary expression or of a closed field. Indeed information of topological texture makes known of insulated the object type and not of relational type like pretopological textures. But the passage of the one with the other is interesting to open an isolated concept or on the contrary to restrict a wide concept with a speciality or a specific field.
To define the organisation structuro-functional calculus of a set of the concepts like spaces of texture, several approaches can be followed according to the objective and the means used :
- The state of things : by knowledge, checking or definition, the elements of the set of the concepts have the properties, which define the organization of the set.
- The static state of observation : under conditions given, the observer perceives properties, which define the organisation of the whole of the concepts. The delimitation of the fields of observation and the means of quantitative or qualitative measurement, mask, inhibits, reveals or stimulates the properties of the elements which define the type of space of representation.
- The process of observation : the observer has means of action on the environment observed and its observation. The observer moves in the environment and spaces of information by addition or withdrawal of properties.
From the globality of information provides by the Internet or its own information provided in Intranet, are multimedia set X of the elements xi, and the properties J connecting these elements in a A(xij) concept and forming a parameter of this concept. For example, these parameters are temporal (moment, duration) or space (places, co-ordinates, distances, zones, etc.) or qualitative quantified (morphological functions, criteria, subjective criteria, impressions, etc).
Are separable binary relations in two groups by their property of transitivity and nontransitivity. The property of transitivity Indeed gives a total perception of the relation between the elements of set X. In fact, xij in relation to xkj can be any element of X. The relation relates to the same type of property j for the two elements. It is an absolute relational measurement because it positions points compared to each other point taken for absolute reference to give it a property. It is thus a relation of state :
xij R1 xkj <==> xij and xkj has an equivalent property j
xij R2 xkj <==> xij and xkj has an ordered property of type j.
The property of nontransitivity gives a local perception and the relation positions in a particular way the elements xab of X compared to an element xcd traversing X. That is a relative relational measurement. It positions an element of X with each other element taken for relative reference by giving him a property. It is a relation of transition from states :
xab R3 xcd <==> xcd includes xab in its property d, some is b.
For example, in this case, the property d of the xkj is to be associated with xab, whatever their property b, to form an entourage, a zone, a distance, a structure or a function.
The composition of two relations (for example R1 and R3) shapes the subsets of X and constitutes the family of the elements of texture. To compare the elements of texture, a distance expresses the difference between two. The elements of texture being comparable, separation in subsets is created by a border defined by the distance: the elements whose distance is lower or equal to one, form part of a same set. The subsets created have elements having either a common relation (transitive or not transitive) or both and characterise consequently the relational interference.
As in topological spaces one can define particular sets. For example the set of adherence Adh(A) of a concept A is the set of the multimedia elements which do not belong to him but which is in relation to him.
The whole of interior Int(A) of a concept A is the set of the multimedia elements, which belong to him but which is not in relation that with them.
Even other particular sets are differentiable : the external one Ext(A) of A like set of the multimedia elements not being in relation to those of concept A, the frontier or border F(a) of A, elements of the adherence of A not belonging to its interior and breaking up into two semi-borders, interior SFI(a) and external SFE(a), according to whether the respective elements belong or not to the concept. But three particular sets, for each subset A, are enough to describe the texture of the set, the others being deductible. Contrary to a space topological, the adherence of adherence is not empty.
These three families of cardinals constitute the elementary descriptors of texture. To obtain relative descriptors of texture, it is possible to draw up ratios for each particular subsets of which that of interior Ri(Ai) and adherence Ra(Ai) by dividing the cardinals respectively of interior and adherence of each concept subset Ai by their respective cardinal. The description of relative texture has as pretopological components two ratios and the cardinal for each subset, the other ratios being deductible.
4.2 Designing relational texture viewers
It is possible to build scales of texture where each analysis of texture represents a degree of texture. The representation according to an order of the degrees of texture is the evolution of texture. For each space of texture, let us take the triplet of the cardinals (the set, the interior, and the adherence) for any concept subset of elements of texture. The cardinal of the subset characterises his absolute importance as a concept. The ratio of this cardinal on that of the total set characterises its relative importance in its environment. The cardinal of the interior of the concept characterises his state of insulation as a part isolated from the concept. The ratio of interior characterises the Aggregation of the multimedia elements forming the part isolated from the concept compared to it. The cardinal of adherence characterises his relational state as a wide concept with all the elements of the environment and itself, which are in relation to him. The ratio of adherence characterises the Dispersion of its environment compared to itself.
he representation in space of the complex numbers describes texture completely by showing the relations between the particular subsets of interior (Int), interior semi-border (Sfi), external semi-border (Sfe), adherence (Adh), and of external (Ext.), the concepts (Ai) and the set (X).
Pretopological texture is defined by 6n+1 complex vectors for N concepts of the set X, such as:
The vectors T2, T4, T6 have the same property as T0 to be real vectors. And consequently, it is possible to consider the particular subsets Ai, Adh(Ai) and X, like the interior of subsets taking part in a texture in other organised sets. If the external semi-border is smaller than the interior semi-border, concept Ai is overall " concave " in its environment. If the external semi-border is larger than the interior semi-border, subset Ai is overall convex in its environment. If the external semi-border is appreciably equal to the interior semi-border, concept Ai is overall very linear and parallel in its environment. Measurements of aggregation and dispersion are proportional respectively to the square of the modules of the vectors T0 and T3 or T4.
There are different properties remarkable to note:
- when the phases P1, P3 and P5 have even value,
- when the external one is equal to the external semi-border,
- when the external one is equal to the external semi-border and the interior semi-border.
When the complex vectors T1, T3 and T5 have a nonnull phase, it expresses a factor loading on their module to decrease by it their importance (histogram of the cardinals). Thus, if the histogram (quantity) plays a significant role in the description of a concept, relational texture balances this one according to the environment of the concepts and the properties, which organise them in texture.
Thus the concept is not expressed only by itself but according to its environment. What results in an organisation not necessarily linear but utilising a relativity through the phase ? : An interesting place for plastics creation, design and aesthetic approach.
4.3 Designing the texture interface
The Conceptier is thus the interface which visualises measurements of texture of the tangle, inter-mingles, or intertwining of concepts by the intermediary of the multimedia elements which describe them or express them.
On the basis of the knowledge base provided by the Conceptuarium, and taking measurements of texture, an self-organisation is used to organise the lines (concepts) and the columns (parameters) according to the proximity of the concepts and the multimedia elements, or in another fashion to the expression of the alternation of opposed concepts. The fact that the data could be processed by self-organisation engines to produce different propositions of scenario and scores, according to the interactivity of the users, gives the name of Data-Thinking.
5 Designing the future
Initiated with 16 linear concepts and 16 parameters (without taking account of the phase), the Conceptier is designed to go up in load. The balls increase (256 concepts, 256 parameters).
In the following steps, the balls take space by visualising the phase according to the depth. The balls open the access by interactivity to spaces of simulation (architecture of interior, complexes industrial, mechanical object etc.) where the parameters of these spaces are integrated into the base of knowledge. The fact that the knowledge data are included in a greater process of acquisition, of interaction, of treatment, of visualisation, and of production of scenario and scores with feedback actions, gives the name of Data-Minding. Thus the PolyAgogic CyberSpace becomes a process control and management tool of teaching, creation and spectacle.
The concept of Universes Cities Virtual Interactive within the framework of the network EDIS-Network of the PolyAgogic CyberSpaces wants to show the links necessary between the Universities (schools, Faculties, centres of formation) and the cities in the institutional contribution to the citizenship through local development and the global access to the cultural and scientific inheritance, education, artistic creation as well plastic as applied and Design (Saint-Jean Patrick at al, 1994).
Andrea L. Ames, David R. Nadeau, John L. Moreland, 1997 : VRML 2.0 SourceBook. San Diego SuperComputer Center. JohnWiley & Sons Inc, New York.
Bourbaki N. 1964 : Topologie Générale. Eléments de mathématique XVI. Actualités scientifiques et industrielles. Hermann, livre III.
Business & Decision, 1999. Le livre blanc du Data WareHouse (Blank book of Data WareHouse). Conseil et Ingenierie en Système de Pilotage.
Lipschutz S. 1965 : General Topology. Mc Graw Hill book compagny, New York.
Heim Michael, 1993. The Metaphysics of virtual reality. Oxford University Press.
Quéau Philippe, 1993 : Le Virtuel, vertus et vertiges, collection milieux, Champ Vallon, INA.(Virtual, virtues and vertigo)
Rheingold Howard, 1993 : La réalité virtuelle, Quand l'illusion a toutes les apparences de la réalité, Dunod éditeur. (The virtual reality, when illusion have all appearances of reality).
Saint-Jean Patrick, 1971 : Notion de Topologie Générale (Notion of general Topology). Rapport interne. Ecole Supérieure d'Informatique Electronique Automatique, Paris.
Saint-Jean Patrick, 1977 : Système Informatique de Laboratoire Opérationnel pour la composition musicale et visuelle. Mémoire d'Ingénieur de l'ESIEA. (Laboratory Computer System operational for the musical and visual composition, engineer's memoir of ESIEA).
Saint-Jean Patrick, Von Hagen V., Koper G., Ploem J.S., 1986 : A pretopological texture model, a multiparametric image model and a hierarchical classification method for the analysis of digitized images. Pattern Recognition in Practice, E. GELSEMA and L. KANAL, Science Publishers B.V. North Holland, pp 102-112.
Saint-Jean Patrick, Emptoz H. 1987 : Espace de texture prétopologique et modèles de tissus complexes. Congrès de Reconnaissance des formes et Intelligence Artificielle. AFCET, INRIA, pp 219-232.
Saint-Jean Patrick, 1989 : Processus de production et d'expérimentation biologiques et médicales par l'analyse de texture prétopologique et la robotique de laboratoire, thèse de docteur es-sciences de l'Université de Paris-Nord. (Processus of biology and medical production and experimentation by the pretopological texture analysis and laboratory robotics, Doctor es-science thesis of the University of Paris-North).
Saint-Jean Patrick at al, 1994 : Arts et Informatique, Arts Informatiques, Polycopié CNED, éditions Mars 94. (Computer Arts, Manifold of the CNED).
Saint-Jean Patrick 1994 : Utilisation et enjeux de l'image numérique, Perspectives à court et moyen terme. PERCEPTION 3D APTEP, CNAM, Paris 1994, organisé et édité par l'Association des Professeurs de Technologie de l'Enseignement Public. (Use and Stakes of digital image, short and medium term perpectives, 3D perception).
Saint-Jean Patrick, 1997 : To a behavioural Design, an other perspective for the 3D perspective of image synthesis to be immerse in new virtual worlds and to settle in its proper live. ACM-Siggraph Education .
Saint-Jean Patrick, 1997 : The PolyAgogic CyberSpace Project. A multimedia system for texturing, networking, and practising knowledge. Edugraphics'97, Computer Graphics'97 Third International Conference on Graphics Education, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal.
The Art and Interdisciplinary, Programs of Siggraph 94, Visual Proceeding, Computer graphics, Annual Conference Series, ACM-Siggraph editor, 1994.
This researche is according to the partnership
Study and Hardware : Apple France for networked computers definition and installation, Barco Inc. for Quadri-projector system, Silicon Graphics Inc. for Real Virtuality solution,
Dissimination : André Loechel and Laura Garcia, AVN and ARENOTECH,
Specific Contents : Hugues Frei of Le Chalet Internet & telecom Design, Pascal Leray of FT R&D Rennes, Philippe Delvigne and Eric Champagne of the Superior Institut of Design at Valenciennes France, Marc Thonon and Lionel Marty of OKENITE, Luiggi Mariani, professor on computer graphics, Architecture School of Paris La-Villette.
Events : Laval Virtual 2000 for the evenmential.
And the Web Community of Design.